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Possible Mumps Case at South Middle School in Arlington Heights District 25; Mumps Key Facts

Sat March 04 2017 12:45 pm  http://www.arlingtoncardinal.com/?p=82331
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Parents and families in Arlington Heights School District 25 were notified Friday March 3, 2017 at 3:50 p.m. of a possible case of mumps at South Middle School in Arlington Heights.

Parents were notified of the possible case of mumps with assurance that another communication would be delivered if the case is confirmed and/or if another suspected case is discovered.

At Barrington High School, the Lake County Health Department announced Thursday March 2, 2017 that there were two confirmed cases of mumps, after the first confirmed case was discovered Wednesday night. One of the mumps cases involved an infected adult employee at Barrington High School.

Dear District 25 Families,

We want to let you know you that there is a possible case of mumps for a student who attends South Middle School. If this case ends up being confirmed, you will receive another communication from us.

In the meantime, we wanted to pass along some information for you about mumps. To learn more about the symptoms, seriousness and spreading of mumps, please click here: https://www.cdc.gov/mumps/index.html

If your child exhibits similar symptoms, please see a doctor or notify your pediatrician.

We will stay in contact with the Cook County Department of Public Health. In the event that we hear of any other cases within our community, we will communicate that to you.

The safety and health of our students is our top priority. We believe it is our responsibility to keep you as informed as possible regarding this issue.

Thank you,

Dr. Lori Bein, Superintendent

District 25’s letter to parents included a reference to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention web page about Mumps for additional information about Mumps, and was delivered by email in both English and Spanish to families from all schools in Arlington Heights District 25. There was no mention of the possible Mumps case on Twitter, and the Facebook link from the official District 25 website referred to a dead link. There was also no mention of Mumps on the official District 25 website or the specific page for South Middle School.

 MUMPS KEY FACTS … 

Defined: Mumps (Epidemic Parotitis) is a highly contagious systemic viral disease caused by the mumps virus (a 200 nm paramyxovirus of the genus Rubulavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae with one serotype but several genotypes). Serotype is the identifier in a viral or bacterial agent that is largely determined and detected by human leukocyte antigen (HLA), in the major histocompatibility complex (the system of cell surface proteins of the acquired immune system necessary to recognize foreign molecules). Cells determined to be non-self are usually recognized by the acquired immune system as foreign, which causes an immune response that eliminates disease-causing foreign substances (pathogens) and stops growth of pathogens.

Initial Symptoms: Sore throat, cough, fever, muscle pain, headache, and feeling tired.

Later Symptoms: Swelling or pain close to the jaw on one or both sides of the face (symptoms in adult are often more serious). The salivary glands become involved 12 to 24 hours after initial symptoms, with fever up to 39.5 to 40° C. Fever persists 24 to 72 hours.

Incubation period: 2-3 weeks (12-24 days with 16-18 days most likely)

[33% to 50% of people infected with Mumps have no symptoms.]

Contagious period:
One or two days before symptoms detected and five days after onset of parotitis (swelling near the jaw and neck).

Transmission: Direct contact, droplet spread, contact with contaminated objects: Sneezing, coughing, sharing of cups or other items with contact to saliva. The Mumps virus is believed to be present in saliva up to 7 days before development of parotitis (swelling and inflammation of the parotid gland — a salivary gland near the jaw). The virus has also been found in blood and urine.

Treatment: Supportive therapy, rest, good nutrition. Call to physician and/or visit recommended.

Contagion/Breakout Control: Patients suspected of having mumps should stay home for five days after the onset of swelling. High vaccination coverage helps to limit the size, duration, and spread of mumps outbreaks.

Control of contacts: Students and staff not appropriately immunized will be excluded from work or classes from days 12 to 25 days after their last exposure.

Preventive measures: Ensure your child is up-to-date with vaccinations. Practice good hygiene throughout the day. Cover your nose and mouth with tissue or the crook of your arm when coughing or sneezing. Don’t share items that go in the mouth.

Acquired Immunity: One attack usually grants permanent immunity.

Peak Incidence: Peak incidence of mumps is during late winter and early spring.

Complications: Mumps may involve organs other than the salivary glands, particularly in postpubertal patients. The mumps virus can attack cells of the Central Nervous System.

Complications include …

Orchitis, which is testicular inflammation, that is usually unilateral, with pain, tenderness, edema, erythema, and warmth of the scrotum. Some testicular atrophy may ensue, but testosterone production and fertility are usually maintained.

Oophoritis (gonadal involvement) in females is less commonly recognized, is less painful, and does not impair fertility.

Meningitis, typically with headache, vomiting, stiff neck, and CSF pleocytosis (increased White Blood Cell count in cerebrospinal fluid or CSF), occurs in 1 to 10% of patients with parotitis.

Encephalitis, with drowsiness, seizures, or coma, occurs in about 1/1000 to 5000 cases.

Pancreatitis, typically with sudden severe nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain, may occur toward the end of the first week. These symptoms disappear in about 1 wk, leading to complete recovery.

Prostatitis, nephritis , myocarditis, hepatitis, mastitis, polyarthritis, deafness, and lacrimal gland (tear duct gland of the eye) involvement occur extremely rarely.

Inflammation of the thyroid and thymus glands may cause edema and swelling over the sternum, but sternal swelling more often results from submandibular gland involvement with obstruction of lymphatic drainage.

Vaccination: The MMR vaccine is the immunization vaccine against Measles, Mumps and Rubella (German Measles). Two doses are required for long term prevention, and initial dose is recommended between the age of 12 and 15 months of age. The second dose of MMR is recommended between four years and six years of age.

According to the CDC, MMR vaccine is very safe and effective. The mumps component of the MMR vaccine is about 88% (range: 66-95%) effective when a person gets two doses; one dose is about 78% (range: 49%−92%) effective. The

According to the CDC, vaccination after exposure to Mumps is not harmful and may possibly avert later disease (See additional CDC Mumps Vaccine section).

The CDC recommends that unvaccinated health-care personnel born before 1957, who lack laboratory evidence of measles, mumps and/or rubella immunity or laboratory confirmation of disease, should get two doses of MMR vaccine during an outbreak of measles or mumps and one dose during an outbreak of rubella.

Adults should stay alert to notification that the Mumps cases have reached an outbreak status.

Adults born before 1957, or other people who have not been immunized for Mumps, such as immigrants who lived outside the United States as children, should contact their physician to see if a Mumps vaccination is recommended. Many countries use reference to a pig face to describe mumps, such as Finland (“pig disease” or sikotauti), Poland (Świnia, Świniak or “little pig”), Russia (Svinka or pig), according folklore and modern words on the street.

According to the CDC, Immune globulin (IG) is not effective postexposure prophylaxis.

Sources:
Centers for Disease Control (CDC) on Mumps

Merck Manual (Professional Version)




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